Indian cinema is world – famous for the staggering amount of films it produces Indian cinema thus has more than a hundred years of history, like the European. A brief History of Indian Cinema: With the screening of the Lumie're moving pictures at Grand Caffee in Paris on. 28 th. December, Cinema became a. History of Indian Cinema - Free download as .rtf), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. golden period of indian cinema.
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PDF | 2 hours read | On Sep 4, , Amrita Sahay and others published Years of Indian Cinema. WARS.”-- Scott Jordan Harris, monpaysofchlesspi.ga A Brief History of Indian Cinema. Cinema came to India in , a mere six months after the first film premiered in. The cinema of India consists of films produced in the nation of India. Cinema is immensely The history of cinema in India extends back to the beginning of the film era. Following the Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 February
Dada Sahib Phalke produced India's first indigenous silent film, Raja Harishchandra, in May of , which enabled the film industry to truly arise.
History of films.pdf - CHAPTER 2 A BRIEF HISTORY OF INDIAN...
The Representation of Women on Screen In traditional Indian Society, there are certain prescribed roles which regulate the conduct of women. For example, the conception of the woman as Sita is prevalent in Indian society and film.
Sita is a character in the Ramayana, one of the great epics, which embodies values and the differences between right and wrong. She is the wife of Rama, who is representative of many virtues including honor, courage, and loyalty. Much of Indian popular cinema is influenced by the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, another epic, which involves the hero Lord Krishna.
Sita is the ideal woman and wife that sees her husband as an idol. Indian popular cinema represents this role of the ideal wife's admiration and unfaltering respect. Also, according to the Manusmriti, an ancient classical work dealing with laws, ethics, and morality, a woman should be subject to her father in childhood, in youth to her husband, and when her husband is dead, to her children.
Within the guidelines of the Manusmriti, women do not enjoy independence. Women are supposed to adhere to the role of a happy figure who takes care of the household. They are supposed to be obedient to their husbands and go to every length to honor them even after death. Although Indian cinema continues to change and evolve, reflecting new trends in gender relations, at least in very traditional Indian cinema women who live by these traditional norms are portrayed as happy and ethical.
Women who go against these rules of narrative and culture in film are punished and seen as immoral. These roles and constructions of women are reflected in a great deal of popular Indian Cinema. Four important roles to consider include the ideal wife, ideal mother, the vamp, and the courtesan. Dissanayake She must be consistent with traditional Indian roles by honoring the family and depending on the husband. She is closely connected to the domestic domain.
The country is connected with the mother goddess, Shakti, who represents great strength. The role of the mother in Indian film is often seen as a strong force, such as in Mother India Her behavior can include smoking, drinking, and dancing. She can also be quick to fall in and out love. She represents unacceptable behavior and is seen as unwholesome. She is almost always punished for her behavior.
She embodies sexuality. She is a character who helps with the physical and emotional needs of men. Often in Indian film, she gives the man comfort and care, after which, he leaves her to desperately mourn the loss of him.
Sexuality in Indian Cinema Many of the roles represented here are similar to that of the roles of women in western film. For example, the women are seen as objects of desire. This relates to the representations of romance and the female figure in Indian popular film. Kissing was unknown in Indian film for a long time.
Public displays of affection are associated with western life. However, there are blatant scenes involving. Wet saris are often involved in these dreams and are caused by a downpour in which the woman's flimsy sari allows for exposure of the female body.
Though the first film advertisement in India appeared in the Times of India on 7 July , inviting people to witness the Lumiere Brothers' moving pictures, "the wonder of the world", it was not until early that an Indian film received a public screening. Rajah Harischandra was an extraordinary commercial success: Phalke could not find a woman to play the female roles, being turned down in this endeavor not only by 'respectable' women but by prostitutes, and had to resort to the expedient of choosing a young man, A.
Salunke, to play the female roles in his early films. Among the middle classes, that association of acting with the loss of virtue, female modesty, and respectability has only recently been put into question, whatever degree of emulation actresses might appear to receive from an adoring public.
While a number of other film-makers, working in several Indian languages, pioneered the growth and development of Indian cinema, the studio system was beginning to emerge in the early s. Its most successful initial product was the film Devdas , whose director, P.
Barua, also appeared in the lead; the Hindi re-make of the original Bengali film, also directed by Barua, was to establish the legendary career of Kundanlal Saigal.
The Tamil version of this New Theatres release appeared in It carried an implied indictment of arranged marriage and undoubtedly gave some satisfaction on this score to those who hate this institution" p. The Prabhat Film Company, established by V. Damle, Shantaram, S. Fatehlal, and two other men in , wasalso achieving its first successes around this time. Damle and Fatehlal's Sant Tukaram , made in Marathi, was the first Indian film to gain international recognition, winning an award at Venice.
The social films of V.
Shantaram, more than anything else, paved the way for an entire set of directors who took it upon themselves to interrogate not only the institutions of marriage, dowry, and widowhood, but the grave inequities created by caste and class distinctions. Some of these problems received perhaps their most explicit expression in Achhut Kanya "Untouchable Girl", , a film directed by Himanshu Rai of Bombay Talkies.
The film portrays the travails of a Harijan girl, played by Devika Rani, and a Brahmin boy, played by Ashok Kumar, whose love for each other cannot merely be consummated but must have a tragic end.
The son of Prithviraj Kapoor, Raj Kapoor created some of the most popular and memorable films in Hindi cinema. Raja Harischandra was the first-ever Indian film which was screened in London in Numerous new production companies emerged in the early s.
Films based on mythological and historical facts and episodes from Mahabharata and Ramayana dominated the 20s but Indian audiences also welcomed Hollywood movies, especially the action films.
It was the first sound film in India. The release of Alam Ara started a new era in the history of Indian Cinema. Phiroz Shah was the first music director of Alam Ara. It was sung by W. Thereafter, several production companies emerged leading to an increase in the release of the number of films. During this time, huge movie halls were built and there was a significant growth in the number of audiences.
Vasan, Nitin Bose and many others emerged on the scene. Growth of Regional Films Not only did the country witness the growth of Hindi Cinema, but the regional film industry also made its own mark. Madan with Italian actors in the leading roles. It was photographed by Jyotish Sarkar.
The movie was made by R. Nataraja Mudaliar of Madras Chennai. Apart from Bengali and South Indian languages, regional films were also made in other languages such as Assamese, Oriya, Punjabi, Marathi, and many more.
Another businessman Abdul Yusuf Ali also worked as a film distributor during — In Bombay and Calcutta some documentary films and news reels were produced by the film makers during this period.
Madan produced the first Indian film called Pundalik in after availing the technical assistance from a British man. He had obtained formal training in arts, music, acting, architecture and photography. He also visited England and obtained practical training in the art and craft of film making.
He produced the first Indian feature film called Raja Harishchandra. He produced about 45 feature films and 16 small films during — and provided a solid foundation for the growth of Indian film industry. Another producer Baburao Painter was greatly influenced by the cinematic works of Phalke and established Maharashtra Film Company which contributed about film technicians. He also promoted a good number of talented film makers and directors. Later on Chandulal Grover established another company namely Ranajit in Mumbai and produced about films.
Himamshu Roy and Devikarani established Bombay Talkies and trained a good number of film makers and technicians in India. The British administrators constituted a committee under the chairmanship of T. Rangachariar to exam in the status and problems of Indian film industry.
History of Indian Cinema
There were many British and Indian members who worked in this committee and recommended certain measures for the improvement of Indian film industry in India. In the decade of s, Mumbai, Calcutta, Madras and Bangalore cities emerged as prominent film making centres of the country. During this period, Tamil films, Bengali films, 89 Telugu films, 87 Marati films and 9 Kannada films were produced.
Madras city also grew well as a prominent film making centre in South India. In the beginning, a good number of mythological, historical and social films were produced in the country.
The Mooki films were given local captions in order to facilitate better understanding among the audience in different parts of the country. Before that, mooki films were known as bioscope films in the country. The early films simply depicted the theatre culture, contents and performance in the country.
The audience saw the theatre performance on the screen mostly. Unfortunately, most of the films are not documented for public exhibition and understanding due to non-availability of technological devices. The Indian film maker also borrowed the film making techniques of their western counterparts.
Most of the films were produced in Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. The prominent film producers of this period include — Phalke, Ganguli, Painter, Chandulal and Nataraj Modaliyar and others. The British administrators enacted the film regulations in order to prevent the production of unhealthy films in India.
Ardeshir Irani produced the first talkie film namely Alam Ara in About mooki films were produced during this year in India.
Most of the film actors of the first generation were basically popular theatre personalities. During Ardeshir Irani, V.
Shantaram, Himamshu Roy, Wadia brothers, K. Barua, Bimal Roy, K.
Subramanyam and others were the prominent film makers. Vasan, K. Subramanyam, P. Pullaiah became prominent film makers and directors of this period. Star system, formula film and black money affected the Indian film industry, comments Kumar New organizations like A.
The Government of India also established Films Division in in order to promote quality oriented films in the country. Prominent films of this period include — K.
Shantaram, Mehboob Khan, Nadakarni, P. The film industry also grew on the basis of box office economics. Colour films also dominated the Indian films during this period.
Despite large number of commercial films some film makers made earnest efforts towards making creative films. Kundanlal Sehgal, Pankaj Malik, K.
Day, Lathamangeshkar, Asha Bhosley and other talented singers also enriched the Indian film industry through their creative ventures. Creative acting, melodious music, effective photography, qualitative direction, luxurious sets and other aspects enriched the quality and status of Indian films in s. Film shooting took place in India and abroad.Representations of Women in Popular Indian Cinema. Archived from the original on 31 May The Culture of Movie-going After Stalin. Indian cinema is a global enterprise.
Sita is the ideal woman and wife that sees her husband as an idol. The first silent film in Tamil , Keechaka Vadham was made by R. Shashi Bhushan. Within the guidelines of the Manusmriti, women do not enjoy independence.
As of , India ranked first in terms of annual film output, followed by Nigeria ,   Hollywood and China.
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